It’s taken quite a bit of reading over the past several weeks to put together the second episode of this series, and there’s so much that didn’t make it in! Here’s a list of sources for the images and information:
On Scurvy and Vitamin C:
- A Treatise on the Scurvy by James Lind
- The Surgions Mate by John Woodall
- Observations on the Diseases Incident to Seamen by Gilbert Blane
- Experimental Studies Relating to Ship-beri-beri and Scurvy by Axel Holst and Theodor Frölich
- Arginine, Scurvy, and Cartier’s “Tree of Life” by Don J. Durzan
- Records in the Older Literature of Tissue Changes in Scurvy by G. H. Bourne (also where the Egyptian hieroglyphs came from!)
- On the Genetic Etiology of Scurvy by Irwin Stone
- Scurvy: How a Surgeon, a Mariner, and a Gentleman Solved the Greatest Medical Mystery of the Age of Sail by Stephen R. Bown
- Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism by Sareen Annora Stepnick Gropper, Jack L. Smith, James L. Groff (collagen synthesis on p. 264)
- “Scott and Scurvy” – a very informative blogpost and list of links
- Popcorn contains no vitamin C.
About Holst and Frölich:
- “Axel Holst” – J. Nutr., May 1, 1954. vol. 53, no. 1. p. 1-16.
- “Theodor Frølich” – Entry in the Norwegian Biographical Encyclopedia (in Norwegian)
- “Axel Holst and Theodor Frølich – Pioneers in Combatting Scurvy” – Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002 Jun 30;122(17):1686-7. (In Norwegian)
On Guinea Pigs:
- The Guinea Pig: Healing, Food, and Ritual in the Andes by Edmundo Morales (no Google Books preview, so I now own a copy of this!)
- Experimenting with Humans and Animals: From Galen to Animal Rights by Anita Guerrini
- “Guinea Pigs were Widespread as Elizabethan Pets” – National Geographic
Notes on Images:
- Scurvy mortality rates in England are based on this graph that uses data from the Office of National Statistics.
- This portrait of three unknown children and a guinea pig can be found in Edward Buehler’s extensive collection of Elizabethan portraits, as well as this collection of artwork containing guinea pigs. The internet is a wonderful thing.
- The picture of Captain Avery (the pirate) was taken from Charles Johnson’s A General and True History of the Lives and Actions of the Most Famous Highwaymen, Murderers, Street-Robbers, etc.: To which is added, a genuine account of the voyages and plunders of the most noted pirates.
- The rum-ration image was printed in The Graphic in 1887.
- “Jacques Cartier’s first interview with the Indians at Hochelaga in 1535” is by Napolean Sarony and Andrew Morris.
- Also, see the relevant Wikipedia articles: Scurvy, Collagen, Axel Holst, Guinea Pig, James Lind, John Woodall, Grog, Scott, Shackleton, Koch, Pasteur, Roux, Vitamin
- The cartoons this time were drawn by me – I’m getting better at it!